South African literature: after apartheid
The most prominent question asked of South African writers after the end of apartheid and the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 was: what will you write about since the primary topic has gone?
Well, apartheid may have died, but its effects linger on, and as writers such as Coetzee have demonstrated, the issues of power that haunted the apartheid era are still in many ways with us.
The early years of democracy were characterized by a new form of writing which literary critic Stephane Serge Ibinga describes as "honeymoon literature" or "literature of celebration".
One of the most acclaimed of these post-democracy writers is Zakes Mda, who worked for many years as a playwright and poet before publishing his first novels in 1995.
He started with two novels, She Plays with the Darkness
and Ways of Dying
. The latter, the story of a professional mourner, won the M-Net Book Prize. His next novel, The Heart of Redness
the Commonwealth Prize; it contrasts the past of the 19th century, when the prophetess Nongqawuse brought ruin to the Xhosa people, with a present-day narrative.
Ivan Vladislavic is another author pushing into the post-apartheid future, with distinctly post-modern works that play with the conventions of fiction as much as they speak about contemporary realties in South Africa today.
He has published two collections of stories, Missing Persons
(1990) and Propaganda by Monuments
(2000), while his novels include The Folly
(1993) and The Restless Supermarket
One of the most irreverent voices to hit the South African literary scene over the past few decades is poet Lesego Rampolokeng. His poems are published in Horns for Hondo
(1991) and End Beginnings
(1993). A powerful live performer of his work, he has collaborated with musicians as well.
K Sello Duiker was a young novelist who made a splash in
South Africa with two novels that won him awards and critical acclaim, Thirteen Cents
(2000) and The Quiet Violence of Dreams
(2001). Set in the urban landscape of Cape Town, the novels see the world through the eyes of the underdog, a street kid in the first and an ostracised gay student in the second.
Duikerís third novel, The Hidden Star
(2006), was the first quest story set in a South African township, moving between hyper-realistic, fantastic and magical worlds. It seamlessly blends a modern, realistic setting with ancient African myths and folklore, and it combines a naÔve sense of humour with a deep reflection on the vulnerability of children in a hard world.
But he did not live to see the novel published. South African lost a major talent when Duiker had a nervous breakdown and committed suicide by hanging himself in January 2005.
Mark Behr has been one of the most compelling and controversial additions to the South African
literary canon. His first novel, The Smell of Apples
(1997), tells of white South Africans who were brainwashed by the apartheid system.
Soon after that, Behr admitted that he had been a spy for the apartheid police while a student activist; a graphic illustration, if one were needed, of the divided loyalties felt by many whites in that period.
Behrís second novel, Embrace
(2000), deals with the formative experiences of a young homosexual. Kings of the Water
(2009) is the story of a man who returns to the family farm in South Africa for his motherís funeral after 15 years in exile.
Among Afrikaans writers now translated into English, notable works have come from Etienne van Heerden, particularly the marvellous Ancestral Voices
The poet Marlene van Niekerkís fictional work has made an impact worldwide, starting with her first novel, the hilarious and horrifying Triomf
(1994). The novel was successfully
adapted for the screen in a film of the same name, released in 2009. Triomf
won the Best South African Film Award at the 2008 Durban International Film Festival, and earned Lionel Newton the Best Actor Award at the Tarifa International Film Festival in Spain in the same year.
Van Niekerkís Triomf
was followed by Agaat
(2004), which provides a window on a half-century Afrikaans landscape and the pathology of families. Agaat Lourier, with her stunted hand and cherished grievance is one of the brightest, most irresistible characters in African literature. The novel won the CL Engelbrecht Prize for literature and was shortlisted for the Independent Foreign Fiction Prize in 2008.
Some quarters have observed that post-liberation writing has shifted from the representation of racial division to that of class difference, reflecting the new social fabric. In fact, writers have become interested in class relationships rather than race since the
governmentís black empowerment policy began to help black people join the circle of the white bourgeoisie, while the poor comprise both races, even though blacks still dominate this group.